How to Avoid Plagiarism
It is important to compose all study and research papers independently, use the sources properly, be able to quote and paraphrase information. In case sources are used improperly or the paper is not composed independently, there is a danger of being accused of plagiarism and facing academic misconduct penalties. Plagiarism is not only submitting other authors’ works or their parts as your own creation, but an incorrectly quoted text as well.
Types of Plagiarism
- Submitting a (bought, downloaded from the Internet, copied) study paper (or a part of it) composed by another person as one’s own;
- Providing or paraphrasing other persons’ ideas or theories as one’s own
- Providing copied texts from the works of other persons in one’s paper without references to the source;
- Providing copied texts from the works of other persons in one’s paper with the source indicated but without quotation marks to give an impression that they are paraphrased by the author of the paper;
- Providing less of the cited text (in quotation marks) than copied from the work of another person to give an impression that a part of the text is paraphrased by the author of the paper;
- Making alterations (transposing word order, changing grammatical structure, replacing words or sentences, omitting information) in one’s paper having copied a text from the work of another person to give an impression that the text is paraphrased by the author of the paper;
- Providing paraphrased and summarised information from the works of other persons without references to the sources;
- Providing literal translation of texts from other languages;
- Re-citing the data and information from secondary sources and indicating the original source;
- Providing bibliographical descriptions of inappropriate, false or forged sources;
- Forgetting to indicate the sources used in the text and in the list of references.
While composing study and research papers it is necessary:
- to use scientific and other reliable most recently published sources of various types;
- to constructively analyse, summarise, systematise the sources and compare them with other sources;
- to write the literally provided text (citation) in quotation marks and indicate the source next to it;
- specify all of the sources used the text and include all of them in the list of references.